‘Tis the Season to Be Thinking about Charitable Giving

With the holiday season upon us and the end of the year approaching, we pause to give thanks for our blessings and the people in our lives. It is also a time when charitable giving often comes to mind. The tax benefits associated with charitable giving could potentially enhance your ability to give and should be considered as part of your year-end tax planning.

Tax deduction for charitable gifts

If you itemize deductions on your federal income tax return, you can generally deduct your gifts to qualified charities. This may also help potentially increase your gift.

Example(s): Assume you want to make a charitable gift of $1,000. One way to potentially enhance the  gift is to increase it by the amount of any income taxes you save with the charitable deduction for the gift. At a 24% tax rate, you might be able to give $1,316 to charity [$1,000 ÷ (1 – 24%) = $1,316; $1,316 x 24% = $316 taxes saved]. On the other hand, at a 32% tax rate, you might be able to give $1,471 to charity [$1,000 ÷ (1 – 32%) = $1,471; $1,471 x 32% = $471 taxes saved].

However, keep in mind that the amount of your deduction may be limited to certain percentages of your adjusted gross income (AGI). For example, your deduction for gifts of cash to public charities is generally limited to 60% of your AGI for the year, and other gifts to charity are typically limited to 30% or 20% of your AGI. Charitable deductions that exceed the AGI limits may generally be carried over and deducted over the next five years, subject to the income percentage limits in those years.

For 99% of the population, this limitation is never a problem.

Nonetheless, for 2021 charitable gifts, the normal rules have been enhanced: The limit is increased to 100% of AGI for direct cash gifts to public charities. And even if you don’t itemize deductions, you can receive a $300 charitable deduction ($600 for joint returns) for direct cash gifts to public charities (in addition to the standard deduction).

Make sure to retain proper substantiation of your charitable contribution. In order to claim a charitable deduction for any contribution of cash, a check, or other monetary gift, you must maintain a record of such contributions through a bank record (such as a cancelled check, a bank or credit union statement, or a credit-card statement) or a written communication (such as a receipt or letter) from the charity showing the name of the charity, the date of the contribution, and the amount of the contribution. If you claim a charitable deduction for any contribution of $250 or more, you must substantiate the contribution with a contemporaneous written acknowledgment of the contribution from the charity. A copy of a canceled check is no longer enough to substantiate your deduction. If you make any non-cash contributions, there are additional requirements.

Year-end tax planning

When making charitable gifts at the end of a year, you should consider them as part of your year-end tax planning. Typically, you have a certain amount of control over the timing of income and expenses. You generally want to time your recognition of income so that it will be taxed at the lowest rate possible, and time your deductible expenses so they can be claimed in years when you are in a higher tax bracket.

For example, if you expect to be in a higher tax bracket next year, it may make sense to wait and make the charitable contribution in January so that you can take the deduction next year when the deduction results in a greater tax benefit. Or you might shift the charitable contribution, along with other deductions, into a year when your itemized deductions would be greater than the standard deduction amount. And if the income percentage limits above are a concern in one year, you might consider ways to shift income into that year or shift deductions out of that year, so that a larger charitable deduction is available for that year. A tax professional can help you evaluate your individual tax situation.

If you want to “turbo-charge” your charitable deduction, consider donating appreciated securities (stocks, bonds, mutual funds, etc.) Not only do you get a deduction for full fair market value of the security, you also escape capital gain taxes on the appreciation you donated. If you want to donate securities that have gone down in value, it’s always better to sell them first, capture the capital loss, then donate the cash (there’s no inherent advantage in donating depreciated securities).

If you give more than $1,000 a year to charity, it may be time to consider a Donor Advised Fund (DAF). A DAF allows you to “bunch” your charitable deductions to allow you to itemize deductions when you might otherwise only qualify for the standard deduction. By funding the DAF with an amount large enough to put you over the standard deduction, you can make charitable “grants” over several years while getting a full deduction in the year that you fund the DAF. Keep in mind that money transferred into a DAF can never be removed, and the only beneficiaries of the DAF are qualified Section 501(c)(3) charities. You can set up a DAF with most major brokers at no cost, and some have no minimums. Talk to us if you’d like more information about setting one up.

A word of caution

Be sure to deal with recognized charities and be wary of charities with similar-sounding names. It is common for scam artists to impersonate charities using bogus websites, email, phone calls, social media, and in-person solicitations. Check out the charity on the IRS website, irs.gov, using the “Tax Exempt Organization Search” tool. And never send cash; contribute by check or credit card and be wary of those asking for cash donations, unless perhaps they’re standing in front of a red kettle.

If you would like to review your current investment portfolio or discuss charitable giving or any other financial planning matters, please don’t hesitate to contact us or visit our website at http://www.ydfs.com. We are a fee-only fiduciary financial planning firm that always puts your interests first.  If you are not a client yet, an initial consultation is complimentary and there is never any pressure or hidden sales pitch. We start with a specific assessment of your personal situation. There is no rush and no cookie-cutter approach. Each client is different, and so is your financial plan and investment objectives.

Required Minimum Distributions Are Back in 2021

As we approach the end of 2021, now might be a good time to take a closer look at a few developments surrounding Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs).

What Are RMDs?

Once you reach age 72, you are required to take minimum distributions from your traditional IRAs and most employer-sponsored retirement plans. (RMDs are not required from an employer plan if you are still working at the company sponsoring the plan and you do not own more than 5% of the company.) You can always take more than the required amount if you choose.

The portion of an RMD representing earnings and tax-deductible contributions is taxed as ordinary income, unless the RMD is a qualified distribution from a Roth account. Failing to take the full amount of an RMD could result in a penalty tax of 50% of the difference.

Generally, RMDs must be taken by December 31 each year. You can delay your first RMD until April 1 following the year in which you reach RMD age; however, you will then need to take two RMDs in one year — the first by April 1 and the second by December 31. (If you reached age 72 in the first half of 2021, different rules apply; see below.)

You may want to weigh the decision to delay your first RMD carefully. Taking two distributions in one year might bump you into a higher income tax bracket for that year.

New RMD Age and a 2020 Waiver Add Complexity

The Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act of 2019 raised the minimum RMD age to 72 from 70½ beginning in 2020.  That means if you reached age 70½ before 2020, you are currently required to take minimum distributions.

However, there was a pandemic-related rule change in 2020 that might have affected some retirement savers who reached age 70½ in 2019. To help individuals manage financial challenges brought on by the pandemic, RMDs were waived in 2020, including any postponed from 2019. In other words, some taxpayers could have benefited from waiving both their 2019 and 2020 RMDs.

Anyone who took advantage of the 2020 waiver should note that RMDs have resumed in 2021 and need to be taken by December 31. The option to delay to April 1, 2022, applies only to first RMDs for those who have reached or will reach age 72 on or after July 1, 2021.

New Life Expectancy Tables

The IRS publishes tables in Publication 590-B that are used to help calculate RMDs. To determine the amount of a required distribution, you would divide your account balance as of December 31 of the previous year by the appropriate age-related factor in one of three available tables.

Recognizing that life expectancies have increased, the IRS has issued new tables designed to help investors stretch their retirement savings over a longer period of time. These new tables will take effect for RMDs beginning in 2022. Investors may be pleased to learn that calculations will typically result in lower annual RMD amounts and potentially lower income tax obligations as a result. The old tables still apply to 2021 distributions, even if they’re postponed until 2022.

If you are a current client of YDFS and you haven’t taken your RMD for 2021, we will be in touch over the next couple of weeks to discuss your options and requirements.

If you would like to review your current investment portfolio or have more questions about RMDs, please don’t hesitate to contact us or visit our website at http://www.ydfs.com. We are a fee-only fiduciary financial planning firm that always puts your interests first.  If you are not a client yet, an initial consultation is complimentary and there is never any pressure or hidden sales pitch. We start with a specific assessment of your personal situation. There is no rush and no cookie-cutter approach. Each client is different, and so is your financial plan and investment objectives.

It’s Employer Open Enrollment Season: Making Benefit Choices That Work for You

Open enrollment is the window of time when employers introduce changes to their benefit offerings for the upcoming plan year. If you’re employed, this is your once-a-year chance to make important decisions that will affect your healthcare choices and your finances. This is the critical time to, at a minimum, consider whether changes in your benefit options are needed.

Even if you are satisfied with your current health plan, it may no longer be the most cost-effective option. Before you make any benefit elections, take plenty of time to review the information provided by your employer. You should also consider how your life has changed over the last year and any plans or potential developments for 2022.

Decipher Your Health Plan Options

The details matter when it comes to selecting a suitable health plan. One of your options could be a better fit for you (or your family) and might even help reduce your overall health-care costs. But you will have to look beyond the monthly premiums. Policies with lower premiums tend to have more restrictions or higher out-of-pocket costs (such as copays, coinsurance, and deductibles) when you do seek care for a health issue.

To help you weigh the tradeoffs, below is a comparison of the five main types of health plans. It should also help demystify some of the terminology and acronyms used so often across the health insurance landscape.

  • Health maintenance organization (HMO). Coverage is limited to care from physicians, other medical providers, and facilities within the HMO network (except in an emergency). You choose a primary-care physician (PCP) who will decide whether to approve or deny any request for a referral to a specialist.
  • Point of service (POS) plan. Out-of-network care is available, but you will pay more than you would for in-network services. As with an HMO, you must have a referral from a PCP to see a specialist. POS premiums tend to be a little bit higher than HMO premiums.
  • Exclusive provider organization (EPO). Services are covered only if you use medical providers and facilities in the plan’s network, but you do not need a referral to see a specialist. Premiums are typically higher than an HMO, but lower than a PPO.
  • Preferred provider organization (PPO). You have the freedom to see any health providers you choose without a referral, but there are financial incentives to seek care from PPO physicians and hospitals (a larger percentage of the cost will be covered by the plan). A PPO usually has a higher premium than an HMO, EPO, or POS plan and often has a deductible.

A deductible is the amount you must pay before insurance payments kick in. Preventive care (such as annual visits and recommended screenings) is typically covered free of charge, regardless of whether the deductible has been met.

  • High-deductible health plan (HDHP). In return for significantly lower premiums, you’ll pay more out-of-pocket for medical services until you reach the annual deductible. HDHP deductibles start at $1,400 for an individual and $2,800 for family coverage in 2022, and can be much higher. Care will be less expensive if you use providers in the plan’s network, and your upfront cost could be reduced through the insurer’s negotiated rate.

An HDHP is designed to be paired with a health savings account (HSA), to which your employer may contribute funds toward the deductible. You can also elect to contribute to your HSA through pre-tax payroll deductions or make tax-deductible contributions directly to the HSA provider, up to the annual limit ($3,650 for an individual or $7,300 for family coverage in 2022, plus $1,000 for those 55+).

HSA funds, including any earnings if the account has an investment option, can be withdrawn free of federal income tax and penalties if the money is spent on qualified health-care expenses. (Some states do not follow federal tax rules on HSAs.) Unspent balances can be retained in the account indefinitely and used to pay future medical expenses, whether you are enrolled in an HDHP or not. If you change employers or retire, the funds can be rolled over to a new HSA.

Three Steps to a Sound Decision

Start by adding up your total expenses (premiums, copays, coinsurance, deductibles) under each plan offered by your employer, based on last year’s usage. Your employer’s benefit materials may include an online calculator to help you compare plans by taking factors such as your chronic health conditions and regular medications into account.

If you are married, you may need to coordinate two sets of workplace benefits. Many companies apply a surcharge to encourage a worker’s spouse to use other available coverage, so look at the costs and benefits of having both of you on the same plan versus individual coverage from each employer. If you have children, compare what it would cost to cover them under each spouse’s plan.

Before enrolling in a plan, check to see if your preferred health-care providers are included in the network.

Tame Taxes with a Flexible Spending Account

If you elect to open an employer-provided health and/or dependent-care flexible spending account (FSA), the money you contribute via payroll deduction is not subject to federal income and Social Security taxes (nor generally to state and local income taxes). Using these tax-free dollars to pay for health-care costs not covered by insurance or for dependent-care expenses could save you about 30% or more, depending on your tax bracket.

The federal limit for contributions to a health FSA was $2,750 in 2021 and should be similar for 2022. Some employers set lower limits. (The official limit has not been announced by the IRS). You can use the funds for a broad range of qualified medical, dental, and vision expenses.

With a dependent-care FSA, you can set aside up to $5,000 a year (per household) to cover eligible child-care costs for qualifying children age 12 or younger. The tax savings could help offset some of the costs paid for a nanny, babysitter, day care, preschool, or day camp, but only if the services are used so you (or a spouse) can work.

One drawback of health and dependent-care FSAs is that they are typically subject to the use-it-or-lose-it rule, which requires you to spend everything in your account by the end of the calendar year or risk losing the money. Some employers allow certain amounts (up to $550) to be carried over to the following plan year or offer a grace period up to 2½ months. Still, you must estimate your expenses in advance, and your predictions could turn out to be way off base.

Legislation passed during the pandemic allows workers to carry over any unused FSA funds from 2021 into 2022, as long as the employer opts into this temporary change. If you have leftover money in an FSA, you should consider your account balance and your employer’s carryover policies when deciding on your contribution election for 2022.

Take Advantage of Valuable Perks

A change in the tax code enacted at the end of 2020 made it possible for employers to offer student debt assistance as a tax-free employee benefit through 2025, spurring more companies to add it to their menu of benefit options. A 2021 survey found that 17% of employers now offer student debt assistance, and 31% are planning to do so in the future. Many employers target a student debt assistance benefit of $100 per month, which doesn’t sound like much, but it adds up.(1) For example, an employee with $31,000 in student loans who is paying them off over 10 years at a 6% interest rate would save about $3,000 in interest and get out of debt 2½ years faster.

Many employers provide access to voluntary benefits such as dental coverage, vision coverage, disability insurance, life insurance, and long-term care insurance. Even if your employer doesn’t contribute toward the premium cost, you may be able to pay premiums conveniently through payroll deduction. Your employer may also offer discounts on health-related products and services, such as fitness equipment or gym memberships, and other wellness incentives, like a monetary reward for completing a health assessment.

If you have an opportunity to change your life insurance, disability insurance or other perks, you may want to talk to us about how much coverage you need. Don’t miss this annual chance to review your coverage and possibly elect higher coverage.

If you would like to review your current investment portfolio or discuss employer benefit options and enrollment, please don’t hesitate to contact us or visit our website at http://www.ydfs.com. We are a fee-only fiduciary financial planning firm that always puts your interests first.  If you are not a client yet, an initial consultation is complimentary and there is never any pressure or hidden sales pitch. We start with a specific assessment of your personal situation. There is no rush and no cookie-cutter approach. Each client is different, and so is your financial plan and investment objectives.

(1) CNBC, September 28, 2021

Perhaps Your Last Chance before the Backdoor Closes

Among the many provisions in the multi-trillion-dollar legislative package being debated in Congress, is a provision that would eliminate a strategy that allows high-income investors to pursue tax-free retirement income: the so-called “back-door Roth IRA”. The next few months may present the last chance to take advantage of this opportunity.

Roth IRA Background

Since its introduction in 1997, the Roth IRA has become an attractive investment vehicle due to the potential to build a sizable, tax-free nest egg. Although contributions to a Roth IRA are not tax deductible, any earnings in the account grow tax-free as long as future distributions are qualified. A qualified distribution is one made after the Roth account has been held for five years and after the account holder reaches age 59½, becomes disabled, dies, or uses the funds for the purchase of a first home ($10,000 lifetime limit) or for qualified higher education expenses.

Unlike other retirement savings accounts, original owners of Roth IRAs are not subject to required minimum distributions at age 72 — another potentially tax-beneficial perk that makes Roth IRAs appealing in estate planning strategies (but beneficiaries are subject to distribution rules.)

However, as initially passed, the 1997 legislation rendered it impossible for high-income taxpayers to enjoy Roth IRAs. Individuals and married taxpayers whose income exceeded certain thresholds could neither contribute to a Roth IRA nor convert traditional IRA assets to a Roth IRA.

A Loophole Emerges

Nearly 10 years after the Roth’s introduction, the Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005 ushered in a change that relaxed the conversion rules beginning in 2010; that is, as of that year, the income limits for a Roth conversion were eliminated, which meant that anyone could convert traditional IRA assets to a Roth IRA (of course, a conversion results in a tax obligation on deductible contributions and earnings that have previously accrued in the traditional IRA.)

One perhaps unintended consequence of this change was the emergence of a new strategy that has been heavily utilized ever since: High-income individuals could make full, annual, nondeductible contributions to a traditional IRA and convert those contribution dollars to a Roth. If the account holders had no other IRAs (see note below) and the conversion was executed quickly enough so that no earnings were able to accrue, the transaction could potentially be a tax-free way for otherwise ineligible taxpayers to fund a Roth IRA. This move became known as the “back-door Roth IRA”.

Employees working for companies which had retirement plans that allowed post-tax contributions into their 401(k)’s, along with “in-service distributions”, could replicate the back-door strategy in a potentially much bigger way, which became known as the “mega-back-door Roth IRA”

Note: When calculating a tax obligation on a Roth conversion, investors have to aggregate all of their IRAs, including SEP and SIMPLE IRAs, before determining the amount. For example, say an investor has $100,000 in several different traditional IRAs, 80% of which is attributed to deductible contributions and earnings. If that investor chose to convert any traditional IRA assets — even recent after-tax contributions — to a Roth IRA, 80% of the converted funds would be taxable. This is known as the “pro-rata rule.”

Current Roth IRA Income Limits

For 2021, you can generally contribute up to $6,000 to an IRA (traditional, Roth, or a combination of both); $7,000 if you’ll be age 50 or older by December 31. However, your ability to make contributions to a Roth IRA is limited or eliminated if your modified adjusted gross income, or MAGI, falls within or exceeds the parameters shown below.

If your federal filing status is:Your 2021 Roth IRA contribution is reduced if your MAGI is:You can’t contribute to a Roth IRA for 2021 if your MAGI is:
Single or head of householdMore than $125,000 but less than $140,000$140,000 or more
Married filing jointly or qualifying widow(er)More than $198,000 but less than $208,000$208,000 or more
Married filing separatelyLess than $10,000$10,000 or more

Note that your contributions generally can’t exceed your earned income for the year (special rules apply to spousal Roth IRAs).

Now or Never … Maybe

While no one knows for sure what may come of the legislative debates, the current proposal would prohibit the conversion of nondeductible contributions from a traditional IRA (or 401(k)) after December 31, 2021. If you expect your MAGI to exceed this year’s thresholds and you’d like to fund a Roth IRA for 2021, the next few months may be your last chance to use the back-door strategy.

You can make 2021 IRA contributions up until April 15, 2022, but if the legislation is enacted, a Roth conversion involving nondeductible contributions would have to be executed by December 31, 2021.

Keep in mind that a separate five-year rule applies to the principal amount of each Roth IRA conversion you make, unless an exception applies.

In addition to eliminating the conversion of nondeductible contributions from traditional IRAs to Roth IRAs, the proposed legislation includes a similar prohibition on the conversion of after-tax 401(k) contributions (so-called mega-back-door Roth conversions), as well as other retirement-related provisions affecting those with large account balances ($10 million and higher) and high incomes (more than $400,000 for single taxpayers and more than $450,000 for joint filers).

Don’t wait until the last minute to make these contributions or conversions. Brokerage firms are extremely busy during the last half of December, and will be especially so if tax legislation is passed this year. Now is the time to be thinking about doing this if it fits within your financial plan.

If you would like to review your current investment portfolio or discuss your Roth IRA options, please don’t hesitate to contact us or visit our website at http://www.ydfs.com. We are a fee-only fiduciary financial planning firm that always puts your interests first.  If you are not a client yet, an initial consultation is complimentary and there is never any pressure or hidden sales pitch. We start with a specific assessment of your personal situation. There is no rush and no cookie-cutter approach. Each client is different, and so is your financial plan and investment objectives.

Medicare Open Enrollment for 2022 Begins October 15

Medicare beneficiaries can make new choices and pick plans that work best for them during the annual Medicare Open Enrollment Period. Each year, Medicare plan costs and coverage typically change. In addition, your health-care needs may have changed over the past year. The Open Enrollment Period — which begins on October 15 and runs through December 7 — is your opportunity to switch your current Medicare health and prescription drug plans to ones that better suit your needs.

During this period, you can:

  • Switch from Original Medicare to a Medicare Advantage Plan
  • Switch from a Medicare Advantage Plan to Original Medicare
  • Change from one Medicare Advantage Plan to a different Medicare Advantage Plan
  • Change from a Medicare Advantage Plan that offers prescription drug coverage to a Medicare Advantage Plan that doesn’t offer prescription drug coverage
  • Switch from a Medicare Advantage Plan that doesn’t offer prescription drug coverage to a Medicare Advantage Plan that does offer prescription drug coverage
  • Join a Medicare prescription drug plan (Part D)
  • Switch from one Part D plan to another Part D plan
  • Drop your Part D coverage altogether

Any changes made during Open Enrollment are effective as of January 1, 2022.

Review Plan Options

Now is a good time to review your current Medicare benefits to see if they’re still right for you. Are you satisfied with the coverage and level of care you’re receiving with your current plan? Are your premium costs or out-of-pocket expenses too high? Has your health changed?  Do you anticipate needing medical care or treatment, or new or pricier prescription drugs?

If your current plan doesn’t meet your health-care needs or fit your budget, you can switch to a new plan. If you find that you’re satisfied with your current Medicare plan and it’s still being offered, you don’t have to do anything. The coverage you have will continue.

Information on Costs and Benefits

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)  has announced  that the average monthly premium for Medicare Advantage plans will be $19,  and the average monthly premium for Part D prescription drug coverage will be $33.  CMS will announce 2022 premiums, deductibles, and coinsurance amounts for the Medicare Part A and Part B programs soon.

Where Can You Get More Information?

Determining what coverage you have now and comparing it to other Medicare plans can be confusing and complicated. Pay attention to notices you receive from Medicare and from your plan, and take advantage of available help. You can call 1-800-MEDICARE or visit the Medicare website, medicare.gov, to use the Plan Finder and other tools that can make comparing plans easier.

You can also call your State Health Insurance Assistance Program (SHIP) for free, personalized counseling. Visit shiptacenter.org or call the toll-free Medicare number to find the phone number for your state.

You can find more information on Medicare  benefits in the Medicare & You 2022 Handbook on medicare.gov.

If you would like to review your current investment portfolio or discuss any health insurance concerns, please don’t hesitate to contact us or visit our website at http://www.ydfs.com. We are a fee-only fiduciary financial planning firm that always puts your interests first.  If you are not a client yet, an initial consultation is complimentary and there is never any pressure or hidden sales pitch. We start with a specific assessment of your personal situation. There is no rush and no cookie-cutter approach. Each client is different, and so is your financial plan and investment objectives.

Tax Proposals in Congress Not as Bad as Feared

The latest tax bill advanced in Congress is notable in its absence of provisions that were expected to be “game changers” (see below). And that’s a good thing for taxpayers.

On Saturday, September 25, 2021, the Congressional House Budget Committee voted to advance a $3.5 trillion spending package to the House floor for debate. The House Ways and Means Committee and the Joint Committee on Taxation had previously released summaries of proposed tax changes intended to help fund the spending package. Many of these provisions focus specifically on businesses and high-income households.

Expect these proposals to be modified; some will likely be removed and others added as the legislative process continues. As we monitor progression through the legislative process though, here are some highlights from the previously released proposed provisions worth noting.

Corporate Income Tax Rate Increase

Corporations would be subject to a graduated tax rate structure, with a higher top rate.

Currently, a flat 20% rate applies to corporate taxable income. The proposed legislation would impose a top tax rate of 26.5% on corporate taxable income above $5 million. Specifically:

  • A 16% rate would apply to the first $400,000 of corporate taxable income
  • A 21% rate on remaining taxable income up to $5 million
  • The 26.5% rate would apply to taxable income over $5 million, and corporations making more than $10 million in taxable income would have the benefit of the lower tax rates phased out.

Personal service corporations (professionals providing services as a regular sub-chapter C Corporation, not an S Corporation) would pay tax on their entire taxable income at 26.5%.

Tax Increases for High-Income Individuals

Top individual income tax rate. The proposed legislation would increase the existing top marginal income tax rate of 37% to 39.6% effective in tax years starting on or after January 1, 2022, and apply it to taxable income over $450,000 for married individuals filing jointly, $425,000 for heads of households, $400,000 for single taxpayers, and $225,000 for married individuals filing separate returns. (These income thresholds are lower than the current top rate thresholds.)

Top capital gains tax rate. The top long-term capital gains tax rate would be raised from 20% to 25% under the proposed legislation; this increased tax rate would generally be effective for sales after September 13, 2021. In addition, the taxable income thresholds for the 25% capital gains tax bracket would be made the same as for the 39.6% regular income tax bracket (see above) starting in 2022.

New 3% surtax on income. A new 3% surtax is proposed on modified adjusted gross income over $5 million ($2.5 million for a married individual filing separately).

3.8% net investment income tax expanded. Currently, there is a 3.8% net investment income tax on high-income individuals. This tax would be expanded to cover certain other income derived in the ordinary course of a trade or business for single taxpayers with taxable income greater than $400,000 ($500,000 for joint filers). This would generally affect certain income of S corporation shareholders, partners, and limited liability company (LLC) members that is currently not subject to the net investment income tax.

New qualified business income deduction limit. A deduction is currently available for up to 20% of qualified business income from a partnership, S corporation, or sole proprietorship, as well as 20% of aggregate qualified real estate investment trust dividends and qualified publicly traded partnership income. The proposed legislation would limit the maximum allowable deduction at $500,000 for a joint return, $400,000 for a single return, and $250,000 for a separate return.

Retirement Plans Provisions Affecting High-Income Individuals

New limit on contributions to Roth and traditional IRAs. The proposed legislation would prohibit those with total IRA and defined contribution retirement plan accounts exceeding $10 million from making any additional contributions to Roth and traditional IRAs. The limit would apply to single taxpayers and married taxpayers filing separately with taxable income over $400,000,  $450,000 for married taxpayers filing jointly, and $425,000 for heads of household.

New required minimum distributions for large aggregate retirement accounts.

  • These rules would apply to high-income individuals (same income limits as described above), regardless of age.
  • The proposed legislation would require that individuals with total retirement account balances (traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, employer-sponsored retirement plans) exceeding $20 million distribute funds from Roth accounts (100% of Roth retirement funds or, if less, by the amount total retirement account balances exceed $20 million).
  • To the extent that the combined balance in traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, and defined contribution plans exceeds $10 million, distributions equal to 50% of the excess must be made.
  • The 10% early-distribution penalty tax would not apply to distributions required because of the $10 million or $20 million limits.

Roth conversions limited. In general, taxpayers can currently convert all or a portion of a non-Roth IRA or defined contribution plan account into a Roth IRA or defined contribution plan account without regard to the amount of their taxable income. The proposed legislation would prohibit Roth conversions for single taxpayers and married taxpayers filing separately with taxable income over $400,000, $450,000 for married taxpayers filing jointly, and $425,000 for heads of household. [It appears that this proposal would not be effective until 2032.]

Roth conversions not allowed for distributions that include nondeductible contributions. Taxpayers who are unable to make contributions to a Roth IRA can currently make “back-door” contributions by making nondeductible contributions to a traditional IRA and then shortly afterward convert the nondeductible contribution from the traditional IRA to a Roth IRA. It is proposed that amounts held in a non-Roth IRA or defined contribution account cannot be converted to a Roth IRA or designated Roth account if any portion of the distribution being converted consists of after-tax or nondeductible contributions.

Estates and Trusts

  • For estate and gift taxes (and the generation-skipping transfer tax), the current basic exclusion amount (and GST tax exemption) of $11.7 million would be cut by about one-half under the proposal.
  • The proposal would generally include grantor trusts in the grantor’s estate for estate tax purposes; tax rules relating to the sale of appreciated property to a grantor trust would also be modified to provide for taxation of gain.
  • Current valuation rules that generally allow substantial discounts for transfer tax purposes for an interest in a closely held business entity, such as an interest in a family limited partnership, would be modified to disallow any such discount for transfers of non-business assets.

Notable Absence of Certain Provisions

As mentioned above, what was just as notable is that many feared changes to longtime rules were not included in the proposal:

  • No increases to the current estate and gift tax marginal rates
  • No changes to the current step up basis regime at death
  • No limitations on like-kind exchanges
  • No required realization of gain on gifts or at death
  • No required realization of gain on assets held in trust, partnership or non-corporate entity after being held in trust for 90 years
  • The top capital gains rate for high-income taxpayers going up to “only” 25% instead of the expected 39.6%

Of course, things are quite fluid and much will change before the ultimate passage of the final tax bill. We’re following developments closely and will post and send updates as things approach passage.

If you would like to review your current investment portfolio or discuss any other financial planning matters, please don’t hesitate to contact us or visit our website at http://www.ydfs.com. We are a fee-only fiduciary financial planning firm that always puts your interests first.  If you are not a client yet, an initial consultation is complimentary and there is never any pressure or hidden sales pitch. We start with a specific assessment of your personal situation. There is no rush and no cookie-cutter approach. Each client is different, and so is your financial plan and investment objectives.

Protecting Your Digital Information & Yourself from Ransomware

In a meeting with President Joe Biden last week, business leaders from major technology and insurance firms committed billions of dollars to beefing up cybersecurity defenses desperately needed after several high profile hacks into major infrastructure and technology platforms this year. This is long overdue given the lax approach taken over the past several years by most major firms.

On May 7, 2021, the Colonial Pipeline, which carries almost half of the East Coast’s fuel supply from Texas to New Jersey, shut down operations in response to a ransomware attack. A ransomware attack is where a hacker latches on to your computer or network, locks you out and threatens to delete or make your data public if you don’t pay a ransom (see below). Colonial paid a $4.4 million ransom not long after discovering the attack, and the pipeline was reopened within a week. While there was enough stored fuel to weather the outage, panic buying caused gasoline shortages on the East Coast and pushed the national average price of gasoline over $3.00 per gallon for the first time since 2014.(1)

Ransomware is not new, but the Colonial Pipeline incident demonstrated the risk to critical infrastructure and elicited strong response from the federal government. Remarkably, the Department of Justice recovered most of the ransom, and the syndicate behind the attack, known as DarkSide, announced it was shutting down operations.(2)

The Department of Homeland Security issued new regulations requiring owners and operators of critical pipelines to report cybersecurity threats within 12 hours of discovery, and to review cybersecurity practices and report the results within 30 days.(3) On a broader level, the incident increased focus on government initiatives to strengthen the nation’s cybersecurity and create a global coalition to hold countries that shelter cyber criminals accountable.(4)

Malicious Code

Ransomware is malicious code (malware) that infects the victim’s computer system, allowing the perpetrator to lock the files and demand a ransom in return for a digital key to restore access. Some attackers may also threaten to reveal sensitive data. There were an estimated 305 million ransomware attacks globally in 2020, a 62% increase over 2019. More than 200 million of them were in the United States.(5)

The recent surge in high-profile ransomware attacks represents a shift by cyber-criminal syndicates from stealing data from “data-rich” targets such as retailers, insurers, and financial companies to locking data of businesses and other organizations that are essential to public welfare. A week after the Colonial Pipeline attack, JBS USA Holdings, which processes one-fifth of the U.S. meat supply, paid an $11 million ransom. (6) Health-care systems, which spend relatively little on cybersecurity, are a prime target, jeopardizing patient care.(7) Other common targets include state and local governments, school systems, and private companies of all sizes.(8)

Ransomware gangs, mostly located in Russia and other Eastern European countries, typically set ransom demands in relation to their perception of the victim’s ability to pay, and high-dollar attacks may be resolved through negotiations by a middleman and a cyber insurance company. Although the FBI discourages ransom payments, essential businesses and organizations may not have time to reconstruct their computer systems, and reconstruction can be more expensive than paying the ransom.(9)

Protecting Your Data

While major ransomware syndicates focus on more lucrative targets, plenty of cyber-criminals prey on individual consumers, whether locking data for ransom, gaining access to financial accounts, or stealing and selling personal information.

Most people don’t know that before becoming a full time financial planner, I spent about twelve years working for major consulting firms helping with deployment of software, hardware and networking equipment, so I know a few things about data security (where do you think the “geek” came from in my moniker?)

Here are some tips to help make your data more secure: (10)

Use strong passwords and protect them. An analysis of the Colonial Pipeline attack revealed that the attackers gained access through a leaked password to an old account with remote server access.(11) Strong passwords are your first line of defense. Use at least 8 to 12 characters with a mix of upper- and lower-case letters, numbers, and symbols. Longer and more complex passwords are better. Do not use personal information or dictionary words and use different passwords for different web sites.

One technique is to use a passphrase that you can remember and adapt. For example, Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water could be J&jwuth!!2faPow (please don’t use this example as your password!). Though it’s tempting to reuse a strong password, it is safer to use different passwords for different accounts. Consider a password manager program that generates random passwords, which you can access through a strong master password. My personal favorite that I’ve been using for over 15 years is RoboForm, but most well-known password managers do a good job (if you click on the link and subscribe to RoboForm, we’ll both get an extra six months added to our subscriptions). Whatever you do, don’t share or write down your passwords.

There are no easy answers. Be careful when establishing security questions that can be used for password recovery. It may be better to use fictional answers that you can remember. If a criminal can guess your answer through available information (such as an online profile), he or she can reset your password and gain access to your account.

Take two steps. Two-step authentication, typically a text or email code sent to your mobile device, provides a second line of defense even if a hacker has access to your password. If your device is lost or stolen, immediately call your carrier and lock or wipe your device before they can hijack your accounts. Most devices can be wiped remotely or be set to automatically erase themselves after a set number of failed attempts.

Think before you click. Ransomware and other malicious code are often transferred to the infected computer through a “phishing” email that tricks the reader into clicking on a link. Data thieves have become adept at creating fake e-mails that look 100% legitimate, so you must be vigilant.

If you hover with your mouse over most internet links, you’ll see exactly where they’ll take you, and it’s not necessarily the site that’s displayed in the text. Never click on a link in an email or text (or a photo) unless you know the sender, are expecting it, and have a clear idea where the link will take you. Even then, you can’t be sure your friend’s or relative’s e-mail account has not been hacked and a seemingly innocent attachment or link is laced with malware.

Install security software. Install antivirus/anti-malware software, a firewall, and an email filter — and keep them updated. Old outdated antivirus software won’t stop new viruses. If your computer, laptop or other devices don’t have extra security software, you shouldn’t be online. Period. And no, in my opinion, Microsoft Defender is not sufficient to protect your PC. The old thought that Apple Mac devices are safe from vulnerability is no longer true; though safer than PC’s, they are prime targets for malicious attacks as well.

Back up your data. Back up regularly to an external hard drive. For added security, disconnect the drive from your computer between backups. Backing up to an online service is a great idea, but your backup might also be infected or affected by malware or ransomware. Only an offline backup, when disconnected at the time of infection, is safe. Never attach the external drive to restore data until you’re sure the threat or malware is 100% removed and the device is safe.

Keep your system up-to-date. Use the most recent operating system that can run on your computer and download security updates. Most ransomware attacks target vulnerable operating systems and applications. Fortunately, for better or worse, Microsoft Windows has made is nearly impossible to avoid installing periodic security patches.

Avoid Public Networks for Sensitive or Financial Transactions. Using public Wi-Fi networks is a prime gateway for malware and ransomware attacks. Networks with names like “Free Public WiFi” are meant to lure you in and install Trojan horses onto your device. If you have to type in a password to access an online resource, then you probably don’t want to do this on a public network (or at least use a password manager to log you in so your keystrokes aren’t tracked). Virtual private network software/services are also a help here.

Secure your entry points. This month alone, my home network router blocked over 4 million port scans and thwarted 75 live threats. If you don’t know what this means, then you need a home network security geek or the help of your internet service provider to help you beef up the security of your home network.

Your home network router/switch probably came with a factory set password which is widely known and easily accessed. Changing the default device password is the easiest way to reduce your vulnerability to an outside attack. Most modern day routers come with more user friendly instructions and software on how to disable your guest network and beef up home security. There’s no need to broadcast your WiFi network name to your neighbors, so that should be turned off, or you might as well call your home WiFi network “HACKERSWELCOME”.

If you see a notice on your computer that you have been infected by a virus or that your data is being held for ransom, it’s more likely to be a fake pop-up window than an actual attack. These pop-ups typically have a phone number to call for “technical support” or to make a payment. Do not call the number and do not click on the window or any links. Instead, try exiting your browser and restarting your computer. If you continue to receive a notice or your data is really locked, contact a legitimate technical support provider, but definitely not the one listed in the pop-up window.

For more information and other tips, visit the Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency website at us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/tips.

If you would like to review your current investment portfolio or discuss any other financial planning matters, please don’t hesitate to contact us or visit our website at http://www.ydfs.com. We are a fee-only fiduciary financial planning firm that always puts your interests first.  If you are not a client yet, an initial consultation is complimentary and there is never any pressure or hidden sales pitch. We start with a specific assessment of your personal situation. There is no rush and no cookie-cutter approach. Each client is different, and so is your financial plan and investment objectives.

(1) (2) (11) Vox, June 8, 2021

(3) U.S. Department of Homeland Security, May 27, 2021

(4) The Washington Post, June 4, 2021

(5) 2021 SonicWall Cyber Threat Report

(6) The Wall Street Journal, June 9, 2021

(7) Fortune, December 5, 2020

(8) Institute for Security and Technology, 2021

(9) The New Yorker, June 7, 2021

(10) Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency, 2021

Update on the Enhanced Child Tax Credit

Earlier this year in April, I wrote about the changes Congress made to the child tax credit that will benefit many taxpayers. As part of the American Rescue Plan Act that was enacted in March 2021, the child tax credit:

  • Amount has increased for certain taxpayers
  • Is fully refundable (meaning you can receive it even if you don’t owe the IRS any taxes)
  • May be partially received in monthly payments

The new law also raised the age of qualifying children to 17 from 16, meaning that more families will be able to take advantage of the credit for at least one year longer.

The IRS will pay half the credit in the form of advance monthly payments beginning July 15. Taxpayers will then claim the other half when they file their 2021 income tax return.

Though these tax changes are temporary and only apply to the 2021 tax year, they may present important cash flow and financial planning opportunities today. It is also important to note that the monthly advance of the child tax credit is a significant change. The credit is normally part of your income tax return and would reduce your tax liability. The choice to have the child tax credit advanced will affect your refund or amount due when you file your return. To avoid any surprises, please get in touch with us if you’re concerned.

Qualifications and how much to expect

The child tax credit and advance payments are based on several factors, including the age of your children and your income.

  • The credit for children ages five and younger is up to $3,600 –– with up to $300 received in monthly payments.
  • The credit for children ages six to 17 is up to $3,000 –– with up to $250 received in monthly payments.

To qualify for the child tax credit monthly payments, you (and your spouse if you file a joint tax return) must have:

  • Filed a 2019 or 2020 tax return and claimed the child tax credit or given the IRS your information using the non-filer tool
  • A main home in the U.S. for more than half the year or file a joint return with a spouse who has a main home in the U.S. for more than half the year
  • A qualifying child who is under age 18 at the end of 2021 and who has a valid Social Security number
  • Income less than certain limits (see below)

You can take full advantage of the credit if your income (specifically, your modified adjusted gross income) is less than $75,000 for single filers, $150,000 for married filing jointly filers and $112,500 for head of household filers. The credit begins to phase out above those thresholds.

Higher-income families (e.g., married filing jointly couples with $400,000 or less in income or other filers with $200,000 or less in income) will generally get the same credit as prior law (generally $2,000 per qualifying child) but may also choose to receive monthly payments.

Taxpayers generally won’t need to do anything to receive any advance payments as the IRS will use the information it has on file to start issuing the payments.

IRS’ child tax credit update portal

Using the IRS’ child tax credit and update portal, taxpayers can update their information to reflect any new information that might impact their child tax credit amount, such as filing status or number of children. Parents may also use the online portal to elect out of the advance payments or check on the status of payments.

The IRS also has a non-filer portal to use for certain situations.

If you would like to review your current investment portfolio or discuss any other financial planning matters, please don’t hesitate to contact us or visit our website at http://www.ydfs.com. We are a fee-only fiduciary financial planning firm that always puts your interests first.  If you are not a client yet, an initial consultation is complimentary and there is never any pressure or hidden sales pitch. We start with a specific assessment of your personal situation. There is no rush and no cookie-cutter approach. Each client is different, and so is your financial plan and investment objectives.

Inflation: Transitory or Here to Stay?

From leading indicators to business surveys to initial unemployment claims, the economic message is clear: The 2020 COVID-19 recession is over! Although the NBER (National Bureau of Economic Research) has yet to make their official announcement, my bet is that the recession ending point is backdated all the way to last autumn, or even earlier. That’s how economics often works… with perfect 20/20 hindsight.

As the economy’s emergence from pandemic restrictions exceeds widespread forecasts and expectations, so do underlying pressures in other areas vital to the stock market’s outlook. And with the combination of a potential valuation bubble on Wall Street and corresponding housing bubble on Main Street, investor sensitivity to interest rates has never been higher.

In April 2021, the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) rose 0.8%, the largest one-month increase since August 2012. Over the previous 12 months, the increase was 4.2%, the highest year-over-year inflation rate since September 2008 (4.9% over prior 12 months). By contrast, inflation in 2020 was just 1.4%. (1)

The annual increase in CPI-U — often called headline inflation — was due in part to the fact that the index dropped in March 2020, the beginning of the U.S. economic shutdown in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, the current 12-month comparison is to an unusual low point in prices. The index dropped even further in April 2020, and this “base effect” will continue to skew annual data through June. (2)

The monthly April increase, which followed a substantial 0.6% increase in March, is more indicative of the current situation. Economists expect inflation numbers to rise for some time. The question is whether they represent a temporary anomaly or the beginning of a more worrisome inflationary trend.

Measuring Prices

In considering the prospects for inflation, it’s important to understand some of the measures that economists use.

CPI-U measures the price of a fixed market basket of goods and services. As such, it is a good measure of prices consumers pay if they buy the same items over time, but it does not reflect changes in consumer behavior and can be unduly influenced by extreme increases in specific categories.

In setting economic policy, the Federal Reserve prefers a different inflation measure called the Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE) Price Index, which is even broader than the CPI and adjusts for changes in consumer behavior — i.e. when consumers shift to purchase a different item because the preferred item is too expensive. More specifically, the Fed looks at core PCE, which rose 0.7% in April and 3.6% for the previous 12 months, slightly lower than core CPI but much higher than the Fed’s target of 2% for healthy economic growth. (3)

A Hot Economy

Based on the core numbers, inflation is not yet running high, but there are clear inflationary pressures on the U.S. economy. Loose monetary policies by the central bank and trillions of dollars in government stimulus could create excess money supply as the economy reopens. Pent-up consumer demand for goods and services is likely to rise quickly, fueled by stimulus payments and healthy savings accounts built by those who worked through the pandemic with little opportunity to spend their earnings. Businesses that shut down or cut back when the economy was closed may not be able to ramp up quickly enough to meet demand. Supply-chain disruptions and higher costs for raw materials, transportation, and labor have already led some businesses to raise prices. (4)

According to the April Wall Street Journal Economic Forecasting Survey, gross domestic product (GDP) is expected to increase at an annualized rate of 8.4% in the second quarter of 2021 and by 6.4% for the year — a torrid annual growth rate that would be the highest since 1984. As with the base effect for inflation, it’s important to keep in mind that this follows a 3.5% GDP decline in 2020. Even so, the expectation is for a hot economy through the end of the year, followed by solid 3.2% growth in 2022 before slowing down to 2.4% in 2023. (5)(6)

Three Scenarios

As investors have become increasingly concerned about inflation, the Federal Reserve has given countless reassurances that current pricing pressures will be “transitory” and short-lived. Yet mounting evidence has seemingly turned this debate into the Fed versus the World.

Will the economy get too hot to handle? Though all economists expect inflation numbers to rise in the near term, there are three different views on the potential long-term effects.

The most sanguine perspective, held by many economic policymakers including Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell and Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen, is that the impact will be short-lived and due primarily to the base effect with little or no long-term consequences. (7) Inflation has been abnormally low since the Great Recession, consistently lagging the Fed’s 2% target. In August 2020, the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) announced that it would allow inflation to run moderately above 2% for some time in order to create a 2% average over the longer term. Given this policy, the FOMC is unlikely to raise interest rates unless core PCE inflation runs well above 2% for an extended period. (8) The mid-March FOMC projection sees core PCE inflation at just 2.2% by the end of 2021, and the benchmark federal funds rate remaining at 0.0% to 0.25% through the end of 2023. (9)

The second view believes that inflation may last longer, with potentially wider consequences, but that any effects will be temporary and reversible.

The third perspective is that inflation could become a more extended problem that may be difficult to control. Both camps project that the base effects will be amplified by “demand-pull” inflation, where demand exceeds supply and pushes prices upward. The more extreme view believes this might lead to a “cost-push” effect and inflationary feedback loop where businesses, faced with less competition and higher costs, would raise prices preemptively, and workers would demand higher wages in response. (10)

Is Current Inflation “Transitory?

Dual surveys from the Institute for Supply Management (ISM) are ringing alarm bells, as the ISM Manufacturing Prices Paid Index has surged to one of its highest readings on record, led by widespread commodity price increases. As stated by one respondent to the ISM survey, “In 35 years of purchasing, I’ve never seen anything like these extended lead times and rising prices – from colors, film, corrugate to resins, they’re all up.” Likewise, even in the Service Sector the Prices Paid Index shot higher and is nearing a 25-year high.

Low inventories among companies that produce goods will undoubtedly keep price pressures high as companies scramble to replenish their depleted inventory and meet the unexpectedly high demand.” And prices have, indeed, continued to rise, while restocking efforts have been unable to prevent customer inventories from falling to a record low.

Central to the Fed’s “transitory inflation” argument is the belief that supply/demand pressures will quickly subside as inventories rebound. My concern is that broader evidence suggests inflation could be far stickier than the Fed expects.

From groceries to lumber to cars and even chickens, inflation pressures are being felt by consumers and businesses. The widespread nature of today’s inflation is one of the factors that suggest pricing pressures may be more deep-rooted than the Fed believes.

Perhaps most importantly, business owners are also facing higher wage costs as qualified labor is becoming an increasingly rare commodity. The National Federation of Independent Business (NFIB) reports that a record 44% of small businesses have unfilled positions, and over half of those with job openings reported that there were few or no qualified applicants.

Historically, wage inflation can be notoriously sticky, and the disparity between the NFIB Job Openings and reported Wage Inflation is a gap that will almost certainly be closed in the year ahead. This casts further doubt on the Fed’s narrative that inflation will surely be “transitory.” And unfortunately for the Fed, wage inflation–once ingrained–can typically only be reversed by a recession.

As businesses are facing higher input expenses, they are already making plans to pass these costs on to their customers. The National Federation of Small Business’ survey of small businesses shows that plans to raise selling prices have reached the second highest level since 1981 – a time when inflation was running near 10%.

Maintaining Perspective

Although it’s too early to tell whether current inflation numbers will lead to a longer-term shift, you can expect higher prices for some items as the economy reopens. Consumers don’t like higher prices, but it’s important to keep these increases in perspective. Gasoline, jet fuel, and other petroleum prices are rising after being deeply depressed during the pandemic. Airline ticket prices are increasing but remain below their pre-pandemic level. Used cars and trucks are more expensive than before the pandemic, but clothing is still cheaper. (11) Food is up 3.5% over the last 12 months, a significant increase but not extreme for prices that tend to be volatile. (12)

Anyone who has tried to buy or build a home in the past six months is aware of the rising stresses in the housing market. Home prices are soaring, not only here in the U.S. but on a global basis as well.

History has shown that it will be difficult, if not impossible, for the Federal Reserve to dampen or halt the imminent impact of the red-hot labor and housing market on the economy. Any cost surprises will undoubtedly be to the upside in the months and year ahead, and that does not bode well for inflation news OR for the Fed’s reassurance of “transitory” inflation.

For now, it may be helpful to remember that “headline inflation” does not always represent the larger economy. And with interest rates near zero, the Federal Reserve has plenty of room to make any necessary adjustments to monetary policy.

If you would like to review your current investment portfolio or discuss any other financial planning matters, please don’t hesitate to contact us or visit our website at http://www.ydfs.com. We are a fee-only fiduciary financial planning firm that always puts your interests first.  If you are not a client yet, an initial consultation is complimentary and there is never any pressure or hidden sales pitch. We start with a specific assessment of your personal situation. There is no rush and no cookie-cutter approach. Each client is different, and so is your financial plan and investment objectives.

Projections are based on current conditions, are subject to change, and may not come to pass.

1, 12) U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2021

2, 4) The Wall Street Journal, April 13, 2021

3, 6) U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2021

5) The Wall Street Journal Economic Forecasting Survey, April 2021

7, 10) Bloomberg, March 29, 2021

8) The Wall Street Journal, April 14, 2021

9) Federal Reserve, 2021

11) The New York Times, April 13, 2021

Enhanced Child Tax Credit for 2021

The American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 (ARPA) ushered in several tax changes that we highlighted in this post last month. One of those tax changes involves the Enhanced Child Tax Credit.

If you have qualifying children under the age of 18, you may be able to claim a child tax credit (You may also be able to claim a partial credit for certain other dependents who are not qualifying children.) The American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 makes substantial and temporary improvements to the child tax credit for 2021, which may increase the amount you might receive.

Ages of qualifying children

The legislation makes 17-year-olds eligible as qualifying children in 2021. Thus, children age 17 and younger are eligible as qualifying children in 2021.

Increase in credit amount

For 2021, the child tax credit amount increases from $2,000 to $3,000 per qualifying child ($3,600 per qualifying child under age 6). The partial credit for other dependents who are not qualifying children remains at $500 per dependent.

Phaseout of credit

The combined child tax credit (the sum of your child tax credits and credits for other dependents) is subject to phaseout based on modified adjusted gross income (MAGI), which for most people, is your total income subject to taxes (this may differ from your taxable income shown on the tax return if you have certain adjustments). Special rules start phasing out the increased portion of the child tax credit in 2021 at much lower thresholds than under pre-existing rules. The credit, as reduced under the special rules for 2021, is then subject to phaseout under the pre-existing phaseout rules.

The following table summarizes the effect of the phaseouts on the child tax credit in 2021, based on MAGI.

Single/Married filing separatelyMarried filing jointlyHead of householdCombined credit
Up to $75,000Up to $150,000Up to $112,500No reduction in credit
$75,001 to $200,000$150,001 to $400,000$112,501 to $200,000Credit can be reduced to $2,000 per qualifying child, $500 per other dependent
More than $200,000More than $400,000More than $200,000Credit can be reduced to $0

Enhanced Child Tax Credit is Refundable

The aggregate amount of nonrefundable credits allowed is limited to your tax liability. With refundable credits, a taxpayer may receive a tax refund at tax time even if they exceed their tax liability.

For most taxpayers, the child tax credit is fully refundable for 2021. To qualify for a full refund, the taxpayer (or either spouse for joint returns) must generally reside in the United States for more than half of the taxable year. Otherwise,  under the pre-existing rules, a partial refund of up to $1,400 per qualifying child may be available. The credit for other dependents is not refundable.

Advance payments

Eligible taxpayers may receive periodic advance payments for up to half of the refundable child tax credit during 2021, generally based on 2020 tax returns.  The U.S. Treasury will make the payments between July and December 2021. For example, monthly payments could be up to $250 per qualifying child ($300 per qualifying child under age 6). Due to correspondence backlogs and under-staffing at the IRS, it remains to be seen if they can make good on sending out those payments on a timely basis this year.

If you would like to review your current investment portfolio, discuss any other financial planning or tax matters, please don’t hesitate to contact us or visit our website at http://www.ydfs.com. We are a fee-only fiduciary financial planning firm that always puts your interests first.  If you are not a client yet, an initial consultation is complimentary and there is never any pressure or hidden sales pitch. We start with a specific assessment of your personal situation. There is no rush and no cookie-cutter approach. Each client is different, and so is your financial plan and investment objectives.

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