Providing for Pets

This past summer, the entertainment world lost one of its most prominent and popular figures: Joan Rivers. When her estate planning documents were unveiled, it became clear that she was a careful planner of her legacy–and also a devoted pet owner. One of the most interesting details of her estate plan was the careful provisions Rivers made for her pets.

Rivers left the bulk of her estate to her daughter Melissa and her grandson Cooper–an estimated $150 million in total value. The two rescue dogs who shared her New York residence, and two other dogs who lived at her home in California, were beneficiaries of pet trusts, which included an undisclosed amount of money set aside for their ongoing care, and carefully written provisions that described the standard of living that Rivers expected them to receive for the remainder of their lives.

Traditional pet trusts are honored in most U.S. states, as are statutory pet trusts, which are simpler. In a traditional trust, the owner lists the duties and responsibilities of the designated new owner of the pets, while the statutory trusts incorporate basic default provisions that give caregivers broad discretion to use their judgment to care for the animals. Typical provisions include the type of food the animal enjoys, taking the dog for daily walks, plus regular veterinary visits and care if the pet becomes ill or injured. The most important provision in your pet trust, according to the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, is to select a person who loves animals and, ideally, loves your pets.

The trust document will often name a trustee who will oversee the level of care, and a different person will be named as the actual caregiver. In all cases, the trusts terminate upon the death of the last surviving animal beneficiary, and the owner should choose who will receive those residual assets.

Some states have different laws that require different arrangements. Idaho allows for the creation of a purpose trust, and Wisconsin’s statute provides for an “honorary trust” arrangement. There are no pet trust provisions on the legal books in Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota and Mississippi, but pet owners living there can create a living trust for their pets or put a provision in their will which specifies the care for pets. A popular (and relatively simple) alternative is to set aside an amount of money in the will to go to the selected caregiver, with a request that the money be used on behalf of the pet’s ongoing care.

It should be noted that a pet trust is not designed to pass on great amounts of wealth into the total net worth of the animal kingdom. The poster child of an extravagant settlement is Leona Helmsley’s bequest of $12 million to her White Maltese, instantly putting the dog, named “trouble,” into the ranks of America’s one-percenters. Rather than confer a financial legacy on an animal, the goal should be to ease any financial burdens the successor owner might incur when caring properly for your loved animals for the remainder of their lives, including food and veterinary bills.

How long should you plan for the funding to last? Cats and dogs typically live 10-14 years, but some cats have lived to age 30, and some dogs can survive to see their 24th birthday. Interestingly, estate planners are starting to see some pet trusts extend out for rather lengthy periods of time, as owners buy pets that have longer lifespans. For example, if an elderly person has a Macaw parrot as a companion, the animal could easily outlive several successor owners, with a lifespan of 80-100 years. Horse owners should plan for a life expectancy of 25-30 years, and, since horses tend to be expensive to care for, the trust will almost certainly require greater levels of funding. On the extreme end, if you know anyone who happens to have a cuddly Galapagos giant tortoise contentedly roaming their backyard, let them know that their pet trust would need to be set up for an average 190-year lifespan.

If you would like to discuss your estate planning or any other financial planning matters, please don’t hesitate to contact us or visit our website at http://www.ydfs.com. We are a fee-only fiduciary financial planning firm that always puts your interests first.  If you are not a client yet, an initial consultation is complimentary and there is never any pressure or hidden sales pitch.

Sources:
http://www.dailyfinance.com/2014/09/11/what-joan-rivers-just-taught-pet-lovers-about-estate-planning/
http://www.dailyfinance.com/2014/08/14/robin-williams-estate-plan-spares-his-heirs-drama/
http://www.1800petmeds.com/education/life-expectancy-dog-cat-40.htm
http://abcnews.go.com/US/leona-helmsleys-dog-trouble-richest-world-dies-12/story?id=13810168
http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/planning-for-your-pets-future/pet-trust-primer

Massive withdrawals from 401(k)s thwart Americans’ retirement planning efforts

As the IRS released the 401(k) contribution limits for 2015, attention turned, as it has in prior years, to the large number of plan participants who come nowhere close to contributing these amounts. In contrast, many individuals use their 401(k) accounts as a means to pay off loans and other current expenses.

The amounts withdrawn are not negligible. According to a recent study by Vanguard, the average withdrawal represents one-third of the participant’s account balance. Additionally, most withdrawals are not for hardship — non-hardship withdrawals outnumber hardship withdrawals 2-to-1, and the rate of new non-hardship withdrawals doubled between 2004 and 20131.

So, why are so many withdrawals occurring? One reason is to pay off debt, including student loans. Another may be to help make ends meet when people are between jobs. Fidelity reported earlier this year that 35% of participants took all or part of their 401(k) savings when leaving a job2.

No matter the reason, the long-term implications of early 401(k) withdrawals can be considerable. In withdrawing from the account, plan participants will miss out on tax-deferred compounding of that money, which can add up over time.

Alternatives to Raiding Your 401(k)

Withdrawing from a tax-deferred retirement plan to meet short-term needs should be a last resort. Before doing so, consider alternatives such as the following:

  • Savings accounts or other liquid investments, including money market accounts. With short-term investment rates at historically low levels, the opportunity cost for using these funds is relatively low.
  • Home equity loans or lines of credit. Not only do they offer comparatively low interest rates, but interest payments are generally tax deductible.
  • Roth IRA contributions. If there is no other choice but to withdraw a portion of retirement savings, consider starting with a Roth IRA. Amounts contributed to a Roth IRA can be withdrawn tax and penalty free if certain qualifications are met. See IRS Publication 590 for more information.

If withdrawing from a 401(k) is absolutely necessary, consider rolling it over to an IRA first and then withdrawing only what is needed. According to the Vanguard study, fewer than 10% of withdrawals were rolled into an IRA; more than 90% were taken in cash1, which typically generates withholding taxes and IRS penalties.

If you would like to discuss your retirement investments or any other financial planning matters, please don’t hesitate to contact us or visit our website at http://www.ydfs.com. We are a fee-only fiduciary financial planning firm that always puts your interests first.  If you are not a client yet, an initial consultation is complimentary and there is never any pressure or hidden sales pitch.

Sources:
1Vanguard Investment Group, How America Saves 2014, June 2014.
2The New York Times, “Combating a Flood of Early 401(k) Withdrawals,” October 24, 2014.

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